Program Plan & Business Model

The business model and budget for the project is being developed in a series of workshops and other meetings, convened by SSBMG co-founders Antony Upward and Peter Jones.  This has led to the identification of a Core Development Team for the SSBM Toolkit / "Book" Project and a number of detailed planning documents, including two business models documented using the Strongly Sustainable Business Model Canvas.

All the details of this process, inputs (e.g. presentations etc.), outputs from the workshops and the planning documents themselves are provided below - in alignment with our idea of radical transparency.  Also at the bottom of this page other background materials that lead to and provided context for the workshops and the project.

Workshop #1

May 15, 2013 - 12h30-16h30 EST

  • Pre-work
  • Materials for the Workshop
    • Arrival Reflection (on slideshare)
      • Some, hopefully, thought provoking quotes on business, flourishing, sustainability and change
    • Presentation
      • On slide-share, recommend download, viewing in slideshow mode with speakers notes
    • Template
      • For remote participants, in-person will use flip-chart of this
    • Stakeholders Ideas List (Now & Next)
      • For remote participants, in-person will draw stakeholders to work-on
  • Coordinates
  • Agenda
    • No food will be served - sorry - we're penniless! 
    • If possible, please arrive early, some time to do the arrival reflection as you walk into the sLab on the 4th Floor is advised
      • On-line participants please review Arrival Reflection (see Materials for Workshop above)
    • We'll be be starting promptly at 12h30 EST
    • 12h30 EST
      • Welcome / Agenda / Purpose / Objectives - Peter
      • Introductions / Check-in - Peter
      • Presentation: Changing the World with Strongly Sustainable Business Models - Antony
    • 13h30 EST
      • Discussion
      • Presentation: The Story So Far - Antony
    • 14h15 EST
      • Break
      • Q&A - All
      • Co-Creation of the Business Model - All
    • 15h45 EST
      • Report out on Business Model - All
    • 16h15 EST
      • Wrap-up / Done-Well & Do-Better
      • Next Steps
      • Check-out
      • Thank-you
      • Together
    • 16h30 EST
  • Outputs
    • If you have additional comments / ideas / corrections, please edit the wiki, or comment on this page. 
      • Antony Upward if you don't have access.
    • Photos taken by Tom Du and Peter Jones are here.
    • Art of the possible.  Participants were asked after first presentation to respond to the questions "what's the potential for this to have an impact" and "what's my possibility in this?".  Responses were:
      • Impact millions of people and communities (lots of copies of the toolkit / "book" sold)
      • Change / shape peoples values and how people think about business models (from profit only to sustainability & resilience)
      • Will help people live the values they already have at work everyday - reconnect people's work lives and deepest personal beliefs about what they want for their loved ones, for themselves and for the world.
      • Impact will depend on how this is packaged, the timing of its release, and the way the primary audience is engaged (i.e. Small and Medium Enterprises)
      • Potential to shift perspective on profit from the purpose, to simply one means to an better end - flourishing of human and other life - with sustainability & resilience built in
      • Potential to shape models and patterns and hence types of benefits - not just providing new labels for things that already exist
    • Business Models
      • In the presentation made at the workshop some initial ideas, design principles and a design brief for the Business Model for the Strongly Sustainable Business Model Innovation Toolkit / "Book" was suggested.  Download the design principles, including slides and speakers notes here.
      • Based on these design principles, and using the template provided (which uses a simplified 4 box version of the SSBMCanvas) three working groups (two F2F and one on-line) prepared three sketches of business models.
      • In addition, prior to the workshop, Antony Upward, prepared using the full SSBMCanvas, his ideas based on the same design brief.
      • Click to download larger versions
        • ONE: Work by on-line group  using simplified SSBMCanvas - FLF,BC,HS,AJ,PL,CY - starting by looking at the value propositions required by core-supporters (during the project) and consultants as potential users of the toolkit / "book".
        • TWO: Work done by first F2F group using simplified SSBMCanvas- PJ, TD, BM, RC - starting by looking at the value propositions required by people starting new businesses (entrepreneurs, innovators, etc.) who want to make their new business sustainable.  2nd slide of attachment includes photo of original work.

        • THREE: Work done by second F2F group using simplified SSBMCanvas - BW, SD, DC, AU- started by looking at the value propositions required by people with existing businesses who want to make their businesses more sustainable.  2nd slide of attachment includes photo of original work.

        • FOUR: Work done by Antony Upward, prior to the workshop, using full SSBMCanvas, based on same design brief.

    • Feedback -
      • Art of the Possible
Participants were asked after first presentation at the workshop to respond to the questions "what's the potential for this to have an impact" and "what's my possibility in this?". Responses were:
  • Impact millions of people and communities (lots of copies of the toolkit / "book" sold)
  • Change / shape peoples values and how people think about business models (from profit only to sustainability & resilience)
  • Will help people live the values they already have at work everyday - reconnect people's work lives and deepest personal beliefs about what they want for their loved ones, for themselves and for the world.
  • Impact will depend on how this is packaged, the timing of its release, and the way the primary audience is engaged (i.e. Small and Medium Enterprises)
  • Potential to shift perspective on profit from the purpose, to simply one means to an better end - flourishing of human and other life - with sustainability & resilience built in
  • Potential to shape models and patterns and hence types of benefits - not just providing new labels for things that already exist
      • Done Well / Do Better
At the end of the first workshop participants gave the following feedback on the process and content of the workshop.
      •  Done Well
         Do Better
         Good visuals
        Too much talk / presentation, not enough questioning (Socratic method)
         Upbeat tone & approach
         Need more opportunity for experiential learning - learning by doing.
        Articulate / well presented
        Too many slides
         Flexible / reacts in real-time to feedback
        More space for discussion
        Nice style
        Start on time; wait at most 5 mins
         Opening question "why am I here", "what is my commitment?"
        More time to share and hear what everyone has to say
         Organization of space and technology platform
        Let people access content / context "on-demand" - allow people to pull don't push
         High level of thoughtful preparation (e.g.  Arrival Reflection, sitting in circle)
        Provide simple "task description / goal" sheet for each break-out session

Workshop #2

Friday May 31, 12h30 EST - 16h30 EST.  For location / remote logistics see calendar invitation sent by email.

  • Pre-work
    1. Complete Doodle Poll for 2nd Workshop Date
      • Preference will be given to a date which works for people who have contacted Antony Upward privately, indicating their interest in being on, or very close to, the core-development-team.
      • If you are uncertain about the level of interest you have expressed please confirm with Antony Upward.
    2. Review Materials from 1st Workshop 
    3. Review Business Model, Key-tasks & Timeline
      • As prepared during 1st workshop
      • Bring your comments on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities & threats to 2nd Workshop (or email if you can't make it)
    4. Reflect on
      • How you want to be involved?
      • What can my contribution be?
      • What you need environmentally, socially, financially in order to commit?
    5. Complete On-Line Survey
      • This will get us information on revenues, value proposition for backers / funders / collaborators, and desirable book content.
      • Please share this survey widely with people you think may be interested in funding, collaborating or buying the "book".
      • Please let Antony Upward know approx. how many people you personally asked (F2F, phone, email, social media), so we have some idea of response rate.
      • Unfiltered raw poll results to date can be viewed and commented upon here.
    6. Download & Complete Budget Template 
      • Add what you need financially in order to participate in the project and/or  based on your expertise / knowledge.
      • Email to Antony Upward and bring to 2nd Workshop (or email if you can't make it)
  • Materials for the Workshop
    • Arrival Reflection (on slideshare)
      • Some, hopefully, thought provoking quotes on business, flourishing, sustainability and change
    • Presentation
      • Just a few slides for task instructions and keep us on track / record key points from discussions etc.
      • These slides have been updated to include notes taken during the workshop.
    • Template
      • For remote participants, in-person will wall charts
  • Coordinates
  • Agenda
    • This workshop will have *NO* presentations or context setting
      • If you didn't attend the 1st workshop, to be productive at the 2nd, you need to invest the time to get up to speed by reading the materials listed here
    • We'll be be starting promptly at 12h30 EST, the entire 4 hours will be task focused with everyone putting their expertise and experience to good use!
    • No food will be served - sorry - we're penniless! 
    • If possible, please arrive early, some time to do the arrival reflection as you walk into the sLab on the 4th Floor is advised
    • 12h30 EST
      • Opening Exercise
        • We have a number of people who weren't present at the first workshop attending
    • 13h00 EST
    • 13h50 EST
      • Task 1b - Develop story line for our business model
    • 14h20 EST
      • Break
    • 14h30 EST
      • Task 1c - Tell your story of our business model (15 mins each group + Discussion)
    • 15h30 EST
      • Task 2a - Provide Your Input on Our Timeline / Tasks / Budget
    • 16h00 EST
      • Task 2b - Summarize Input on Timeline / Tasks / Budget (5 mins each)
    • 16h15 EST
      • Next Steps Discussion
        • Core-Development-Team Identification
      • Done Well / Do Better
      • Check-out
    • 16h30 EST
  • Outputs
      • As described in this slideshare, slide 42.
        1. Business Proposal
          • Read in conjunction with Business Models
        2. Book Proposal +
          • In two tabs of a single excel file:
            • 2a - Project Task Plan
            • 2b - Project Financial Plan
        3. Core Development Team Roles and Responsibilities
        4. Detailed Plans
          • 4a - Collaboration Plan
          • 4b - Crowd-Funding Marketing Plan
          • 4c - Crowd-Funding and Collaboration Platform Requirements
          • 4d - Legal Entity Design

    • Why am I here & What do I bring? / What is my possibility &  my commitment?
To open the 2nd workshop participants were asked to share their responses to the following questions.

      • Why am I here?

        • Life long commitment to sustainability
        • Moral imperative to make business sustainable
        • Generally interested and curious
        • To help with the transformation of theory of the SSBMCanvas to practical tool
        • Ability to leverage business model to change business
        • Biz Model seen as a powerful tool to change orgs – helps groups work effectively to create change
        • Concern for the state of the world
        • Sustainability, Innovation and Business Model belong together
        My possibility is
        • Career and income – sustainable
        • Connecting this project to the “gold-standard” for sustainable business
        • Better understanding of the SSBMCanvas
        • Helping lots of SME change to be more sustainable (this project and the beyond is a exciting vehicle for this)
        • Developing case studies of applications of the SSBMC to strategy
        • Possibility to learn about business and sustainability
        • Being part of a great project
        • Flourishing planetary culture that transcends national boundaries
        • Connecting this initiative to the Integrating Reporting (IIRC, GISR, GRI) initiatives – showing the connections graphically
        What do I bring?
        • SSBMOntology and Canvas
        • 30 yrs of sustainable business design and implementation experience + effective group development / change experience
        • Engineering, project management and pragmatic business experience
        • Large network in business and management consulting
        • Fresh eyes on the usability
        • Practical business consulting and academic experience
        • Connection to the academic world to evaluate / validate through research
        • Experience using the profit-first business model canvas to design sustainable business
        • Understanding of the real problems companies face when they try to implement sustainability
        • More questions than answers
        • Potential labs to pilot to solutions and methods
        My Commitment is
        • TBD
        • 100%
        • Contributing to the writing
        • Using the Toolkit in business
        • Lead research to support development of the toolkit
        • Helping to co-ordinate activities within the project
        • Helping to design the toolkit (visual, story telling, etc.)
        • “Heart Centric Path” to a better future for humanity and other life – compassion and love not power and force
        • Bring the training and other skills to the project
        • Connecting the academic community to strongly sustainability practitioners and consistent language use

    • Business Models
      • These were developed on wall based Strongly Sustainable Business Model Canvases, along with some developed by the on-line group using a powerpoint template of the Strongly Sustainable Business Model Canvas
      • The work was done using the same design principles as was used in the first workshop.
      • The on-line group (DG, SHS, AJ, FLF, SS, BC CJ, facilitated by HS and documented by AJ and FLF) produced the following work:
        • SSBMI Canvas v1.0 - On-Line Group ( 2nd workshop)
  • This was refined after the workshop using a template that was claimed to be easier to use by AJ and FLF
    • SSBMI Canvas v1.0 - AJ,FLF (post 2nd workshop)

  • Feedback
    At the end of the second workshop participants gave the following feedback on the process and content of the workshop.
    • Done Well
      Do Better
      Listened to feedback and implemented it (task definition, workshop mode not presentation mode)
      Scope was too ambitious; de-scope ahead of time; get real about how much we can do
      Home work / pre-work / came prepared
      Process on-line needs to be parsed into very specific deliverable to make it doable
      Substantial pre-work with members of the team (on-line and face to face); provision of outputs from workshop 1 quickly
      How to split workshop facilitation between on-line and F2F
      Organization and logistics (on-line; F2F; logistics; agenda)
      How to use on-line to best drive value; how to better capture ideas; lost richness (collaborative / simultaneous idea capture – use GoogleDocs)
      Flexibility – responding to feedback
      Give even more pre-work; come with something to discuss rather than trying to create (i.e. use SSBMC 14 questions)
      Very democratic and open
      Process for efficient and effective population of the canvas to ensure you complete it all (method / facilitator guide)
      - Rapid prototyping
      Hilary’s facilitation role; and pre-briefing Hilary and Hilary coming on line early
      Dry run the facilitation of the design process
      We’re eating our own “vegetables”; we think this exercise was useful
      Highly rational; not intuitive / emotional – very left brain;  gut check missing; 

       

      More task specific focus; to get to the goals;
  • Next Steps
    • AU undertook one-on-one F2F or phone conversations with all participants of workshop to determine which people were interested in becoming members of the Core Development Team and what roles they wished to play.
    • This was document in planning document #3 Core Development Team Roles and Responsibilities v1.0 that was circulated to the team for review and comment June 24, 2013.

Workshops #3 and #4

All the business models were then integrated at two subsequent workshops held by those people who a) Chose to become Core Development Team members and b) Chose to take the role of members of Managers for the project (and business).

Two further workshops were held June 27 and July 2 at the OCAD sLab - AU, PJ, SD attended (BC offered his apologies)

AU integrated the business models output from workshops 1-4 and the feedback from the reviews of the Core Development Team Roles and Responsibilities document.  The integrated business models (one for the project and one for the business) were released to the Core Development Team Managers with the drafts of the other planning documents (see list of planning documents here). The first drafts of all the planning documents was released in late October.

Workshop #5

The Core Development Team Managers met on October 27 at the OCAD sLab - BC, SD, PJ and AU attended to review the first drafts of the planning documents (see list of planning documents here).

As a result of the feedback and discussion a revised set of planning documents was prepared

Other Meetings


Meetings were also held by AU and various other Core Development Team members
  • To identify Core Development Team members with skills missing from the original group (story telling and visual design)  and to improve the diversity of the group along a number of dimension, including gender. (with Peter Jones)
  • with a co-op start-up advisor
  • with a Crowd-sourcing (Crowd-funding and Collaboration) platform vendor (with Bill Craig)

Business Proposal and Detailed Planning Documents

On November 26 and 29 the Core Development Team met to review a presentation that introduced the detailed planning documents.  This presentation may be viewed on and downloaded from slideshare here.

The complete set of "good enough" planning documents were released to all Core Development Team members for review in mid-January 2014.

  1. Business Proposal, consisting of 
    • Business Proposal Summary (2 pages)
    • Business Proposal document
    • This should be read in conjunction with Business Models described using Strongly Sustainable Business Model Canvas in Mural.ly
      • 1a. - View only link for the business Model for the crowd-funded collaboration project that will produce a book, working title "Strongly Sustainable Business Model Innovation" containing the first version of the Strongly Sustainable Business Model Toolkit
      • 1b - View only link for the business model for the business that will continuously improve and expand (based on these ideas), the toolkit.  The working title for this business is the Strongly Sustainable Business Model Innovation Co-operative.

  2. Book Proposal, consisting of
  3. Core Development Team Roles and Responsibilities document

  4. Detailed Plans
The level of completeness of each of the files released is summarized in section 1.3 of the Business Proposal.

A list of background documents to read will also be supplied to the Core Development Team to level set our knowledge (will be added to our learning map here)

Detailed Budget Preparation

Following the full core development team workshops and "all-for-one" meetings Feb 11-13 held at the OCADU sLab the management team was tasked with preparing a revised project roadmap, and detailed task plan and  budget for phases 1 and 2 (until the end of crowd-funding).

A full financial projection for the co-op will also be prepared, along with a compelling story about our value proposition to share with our backers.

The first workshop was held Feb 21, 2014.

Stephen Davies and Antony Upward then met Feb 26 to develop an improved detailed project plan for Phase 1 & 2 (WBS, Deliverables), evolving planning document #2 above as follows:

  • A single excel file with 5 tabs containing:
    • 2a - Roadmap for Project and Beyond
    • 2b - Phase 1 & 2 Task Plan (WBS / Deliverables / Resources)
    • 2c - Phase 1 & 2 Budget
    • 2d - Phase 3 Estimate
    • 2e - Business Projection (this template was developed for this tab prior to its inclusion into the overall planning spreadsheet)

Further workshops were held with various combinations of members of the Management Team (and Ceda Verbakel) March 13, March 20, March 31, 2014 which evolved the detailed project plan - focused on the budget for phase 1 and 2 of the project (tab 2b).

In addition Bruce Stewart and Antony Upward met March 20 and March 27 specifically develop the revenue aspects of phase 1 and 2 (tab 2b), the revenue and costs aspects of phase 3 (tab 2d) and the 5 year Business Projections (Environmental, Social and Economic) for the co-op (tab 2e).

Work to complete the detailed plan, budget and business projections continues...


Background Materials

Inspiring Examples

Also, at the other end of the spectrum, some thinking on what the major publishers are doing in response to these types of crowd-funded / collaborative / self-publishing options (to continue to maximize their profits) "Business Models are Changing; Trial and Error will Ensue" by Mike Shatzkin.

Evolution

Clear the business model will need to evolve adapt over time, particularly at the end of the project as the "book" is first published:

  • From "build" and limited "use / apply" (within the crowd)
  • To "build and improve / use and apply" (in the market overall)

Questions We Must Have Compelling "Good Enough" Answers To

Typically these are the questions a book proposal would answer.  In our case it is the detailed support for asking for the funds.  This list is only partially ordered!

  • A synopsis of the book
    • What are we producing? 
    • What kind of story does it tell? (Elevator pitch)
    • Topic summary, conceptual structure, guiding principles
  • Primary benefit of the book
  • What does success look like for each of the stakeholders?
    • Target audience (Market positioning)
    • Collaboration community
      • (who is going to help, how will this make this a winning book, how will the collaborators help - write and market the book)
  • List of competing books (see co-opetitors list)
  • Book Details
    • Book specifications
      • length, time to write/edit, physical size, # of colours, type of paper, type of binding, # of figures/tables/pictures etc.
      • complementary web content
    • Chapter by Chapter summary
    • Organization
  • Who will be involved?
    • What skills / qualifications are required in the core-writing-team / authors / wide-team
    • Why are we the best people to tell this story?
  • How will we organize ourselves
    • Legal
    • Roles - lead, engage, support
    • Location
  • How much will it cost
    • Time, money, energy, other resources
    • How will we raise the money and find the other required resources?
    • Our plan for spending the crowd-funded money wisely, efficiently, effectively
  • When & Where
    • Tasks, duration
  • What's next once the book is completed?  How will the book be leveraged?
  • What risks are there and how will these be mitigated?

(Inspired by Peter Jones proposal for his recent book "Designing for Care", a blog post by Alex Osterwalder's agent, Jeffery Krames "The Killer Book Proposal", and this Kick-starter book project 'Documenting the 'rise of the reluctant innovator' by Ken Banks.)

Crowd-Funding

Assume value proposition for funders / collaborators will be a mix of the reward and donation models.

Asier Ania at HiveWire.ca, the crowd-funding platform for CSI's Catalyst crowd-funding process provided a long list of things to think about, but summarized the ingredients of successful crowd-funding as:

  • Quality of the idea
  • The degree the network into which the "ask" is being made is understood
  • The attractiveness of the "give back" in return for the funding (funding value proposition)
  • The execution of the marketing campaign to the network - explaining the idea and the value proposition

Understanding the Market / Market Segmentation

Ideas on how the market might be segmented and which pieces of it this project is aiming to address was put forward in the "theory of change" prezi developed in May 2012 (specifically Peter Jones / Antony Upward).  Five dimensions of the market were identified

  1. Size of organization
  2. Nature of organization (NGO/charity, for-profit, government)
  3. Nature of Design Activity (new business, change existing,  add to existing)
  4. World-view of decision makers  (from profit-first to strongly sustainable)
  5. Number of designers / decision makers / stakeholders

Some initial analysis of each of these dimensions was undertaken, but no conclusions were reached.  For example several have suggested we need two "books" - one which addresses the more "profit-first" end of the spectrum and the other which addresses the more "strongly-sustainable" end.

Agents and Publishers

The current assumption is that the project will self-publish and undertake (via the crowd/collaborators) its own marketing.  We are also assuming some aspects of the project (perhaps the canvas itself) will be creative commons without a commercial restriction (following Alex's lead with the business model canvas)

However, it would appear to make sense to subsequently find an agent and license the book to a publisher (much as Alex did) or many local publishers world-wide.  Need to consider balance between achieving project objective of wide-spread dissemination and use.  Suggests considering both main-stream and niche / "green" publishers.

Ideas for agents, include:

Ideally we'd like publishers who are or who are heading towards being a B Corp.  Publishers which often publish "green" business work include:

  • Chelsea Green
  • New Society Publishers (via Bob Willard)
  • GreenLeaf
  • MileHigh Press (via Doug Gilbert)
  • Wiley (via Alex Osterwalder / Tim Clark / Doug Gilbert)
  • Iguana Books (via Barry Stoddart)
  • Rosenfeld Media (via Peter Jones)
  • McGrawHill (via Petra Kassun Mutch)
  • sLab Demo Publishing (via Peter Jones)
There are also models which maintain some mix of these, such as Cory Doctorow’s approach, described in Doctorow's Project: With a Little Help.  His creative approach to publishing includes creative commons and expensive bound versions of his writing, of the same work (Thanks to Bob Willard for pointing this out)

There are also "lean-publishing" / "publish early, publish often" models which may be facilitated by eBook or "print on demand" services, for example LeanPub .com

Book Specification and Printers

Clearly we're looking for (at a minimum) a printer who is FSC certified, can print on 100% recycled stock, with water based inks and glues (and biodegradable other materials).  A local printer would be good too! Possible printers include:

  • Flash Reproductions (did the original print run for Business Model Generation, based in Toronto, Antony has a quote)
  • Warrens Waterless Printers (did all the posters Antony used during his research, based in Toronto)
  • Melcher Media (the NYC based owners of the "durabook" format using by McDonough and Braungart for "Cradle to Cradle")
  • Lightening Source (via Harry Stoddart)


Distribution & Retail

Lots to think about in terms of how we distribute and retail - particularly to follow through on our understanding of the importance of local to sustainable (for example how do we engage with the, once again, increasing number of local book sellers?).  Clearly e-sales will  be important and clearly we don't want to have to do the picking and packing ourselves.  More investigation required.

For example we need to consider both wholesale and retail distribution: i.e. printer to warehouse to retailer; retailer to customer (one advantage of large scale e-tailers like amazon is they do both types of distribution!

Barriers and Risks

Early thoughts mentioned in emails by Bob Willard, Peter Jones and others.  These are potentially both applicable to various dimensions of the project and which could lead to the failure of the book and tool in the market.

    • Not enough time: don’t have time to invest in the exercise because of other pressing deadlines and priorities.
    • Not enough expertise or a perception that the Core Development Team doesn't have enough practical experience: not sure if the tool is not ready for prime time yet, so it may not give you the right answer(s).
    • Not enough money to enable people with the skills to devote themselves to this effort.
    • Perceived as not living up to our values (reputational risk)
    • Not listening, learning and acting based on the “voice of the stakeholder”.
    • Increased vulnerability to having our ideas devalued (by having them used in ways that don’t help achieve our vision) or used without our permission by one or more of our co-opetitors51 (a risk we exacerbate by our choice to be radically transparent in our plans, and our proactive involvement of many addition co-creators).
    • Failure to build effective relationships with key stakeholders and related endeavors.
    • Failure to supply co-creators with a sufficiently viable version of the toolkit that they are unable to give us meaningful feedback and hence for us to be able to improve it and our description of it in the book, and as a result lose their trust is us and (worse) the toolkit and book project.  (Such a loss of trust would likely be fatal to our success!)
    • Failure to enable co-creators to active participants; they become passive most of the time, leading to reduced passion and commitment to pollinating our vision.
    • Failure to gain attention of our desired readers – distribution and media exposure are now commodities, attention is the new scarcity.
    • Failure to produce a product that is sufficiently easy to use and useful.
    • Fear of failure for the Core Development Team and our other stakeholders when they use the Toolkit: What you get from developing or using the toolkit may be less than the investment you put into it; or: it sounds too good to be true – there must be catch; or: this could be embarrassing if I find out the tool doesn’t work.
    • Unexpected unavailability of a Core Development Team member, Partner or Collaborator
      Perfectionism – Having to produce nearly perfect work for peer and advisory review (whether actually required or imagined!)
    • Interruptions – The many unaccounted for invasions into otherwise well-planned time.
    • Opportunity costs – Having committed to certain intellectual or relational pathways that don’t pan out, but can’t be easily unwound.

    Work is required for the Core Development Team conclude we have, in these planning documents, taken sufficient steps to mitigate these risks, for the risks to be acceptable.

    Finally some may think the following are risks (based on typical approaches).  To be clear we see them as advantages:

    • Involvement of large group of co-creators and an open innovation process means
    • Less ability for Core Development Team to control the unfolding of the creative process; governance not control is required.
    • More work for the Core Development Team; better more usable product results.
    And as entrepreneurs pitching out idea (to a crowd, not angel investors or dragons) might still be instructive to review the "don't dos" and "must dos" in this article - written based on the winning approaches used by the businesses seeking funding on Dragon's Den: Maxwell, A. L., Jeffrey, S. A., & Lévesque, M. (2011). Business angel early stage decision making. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(2), 212-225. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.09.002
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